The Disappointment Of Austria 1938


Fuehrer
A position that was given to Hitler which have an absolute power
Anschluss
union between Germany and Austria
Mussolini
Italian dictator
Nasis
A political party that are in chage of Germany
Schuschnigg
A Chancaller of Austria



1918 world war one ended Austria lost the war
1920-1930 Austria suffer from political problem
1927 short civil war in Vienna
1934 the socialist were defeated
July 1934 Nasis group in Austria try to take over the goverment but was pervented by Mussolini
1936 Mussolini became ally with Germany when he signed Rome-Berlin Axis treaty with Hitler
1937 He told Schuschihh that he would no longer defend Austria from another attack
1938 Hitler went to Austria to discuss their......... relationship with Schuschnigg
January 1938 Hitler ask Schuschihh to resign or he will invade Austria.
1938 March 12 German army crossed Austria border into Viena. not a single bullert have been fired





Background
Austria was once a powerful country in Europe. Still they lost old war one along with Germany. They suffer from economic breakdown (the greater depression). On 11 March 1938 the averment of Austria was taken over by pro-German Nazis. In the next day German march into Austria with a warm welcome from an Austria citizen, no one seems to resisted. Hitler on March 13 announced that Austria and Germany were now a single country. Non of a major power in Europe made a move to stop this Anschluss(union). Why is it so easy for Hitler to unite with Austria? Even though it is forbidden by the treaty of Versailles, why is it so simple for Hitler to do this?

Austria after 1919
Austria suffers from the political problem in 1920 and 1930. The two leading political party both kept private army, the right-wing Heimwmhr and the socialist Schutzbund. This political party always fights each other on the street, causing a casualties and damage to nearby building. there were even a civil war in the capital city in 1927 and it end in 1934 when the Heimwehr bombard block of building in Vienna where the socialist were hiding. The socialist were defeated in the 1934 civil war but this victory doesn't help the right wing at all. The economic was worst and the citizen live in fear; sacred that another civil war might broke out. Also the citizen of the country were more decided because of this war, even though the war is over there have been a report of murdering and shooting right at the street. From this point Austria was out of control.




Austria_map.jpg Anschluss.jpg

Austria before German Anschluss (united) Austia after German Anschluss

Nazi took action

In July 1934 a Nazis group of the right wing tried to take over the government, killing the Chancellor, Dollfuss. After this chaos new Chancellor of Austria Kurt von Schuschnigg had to rely on Mussolini a hero who prevents Hitler from taking Austria support to stop the Nazis trying to seize power again. However in 1936 Mussolini became ally of Germany when he formed 'Rome-Berlin Axis' with Hitler. in the treaty it said that if Italy signed the treaty, Germany will give Italy a support on armed force and supply, also German will not consider Italy as her enemy and will not send in any soldier if it is unnecessary as a result he stop supporting Schuschnigg by not sending in any soldier when the situation is out of control. In 1937 he told Schuschnigg he would no longer defend Austria against the invasion of Germany he us the excuse that Italy is not safe and need every bit of soldier in their country which are totally false. Austria can't do anything but to accept it or they will risk having more enemy. Mussolini also told Hitler that he regarded Austria as a German state and that he would do nothing to stop it becoming German. Austria now loose it main protector.



Why does Mussolini stop support Austria?

Why does Mussolini stop supporting Austria? There are very simple solutions. In my opinion Mussolini felt that it doesn't worth fighting Hitler and keep defend a country that doesn't give him any benefit, rather than becoming Hitler enemies. Why not become friend with him? Hitler would appreciate it and it might help Mussolini full fill his dream which he want Mediterranean Sea under his control. However this mean he needs to fight Britain because most of the area in the Mediterranean was colonized by the British. It is very risky at that time because Italian navy were unmatched to the British Navy at this point and it would alert another country. Having Germany on Italy side the two country navy together might defeat British navy. So rather than becoming German enemy, Mussolini choose to become German allied.

Benito_Mussolini.jpg Benito_Mussolini_and_Adolf_Hitler.jpg kurt_von_schuschnigg_clip_image002.jpg

Mussolini Mussolini with Hitler Austrai chanchaller Kurt Von Schuschnigg

The Anschuluss with Austria, 1938

In February 1938 Hitler met Schuschnigg for a discussion about the future relationship between their two countries. Hitler was threatened Schuschnigg in the many way for several hour. He said that he can even attack Austria if he wants to, one thing he need to do is just to say a word. Then Hitler handed him a list of ten demands. The main point of the command is to give a con told of Austria police the right wing political party. Schuschnigg could see that Hitler was aiming at a Nazis take-over of Austria. Then on February 1938 Hitler was confident enough to give a vote to Austria citizen whether they want to unite with German or to make Austria an independent country. Most of the Austria citizen still wants Austria as an independent country, this answer dive Hitler mad. Hitler was furious when he heard about the vote. Hitler demands that Schuschnigg must resign the treaty or he will order a full scale assault on Austria. To stop that to happen Schuschnigg resigned, along with every other government minister except Seyss-Inquart

Seyss-Inquart was now the only minister in the office since the other was force to resign. He promptly invited the German army to occupy Austria. Germany troop crossed the border early on 12 March 1938. Hitler followed later in the day and was warmly welcome by cheering crowd in Linz, where he had gone to school.’ younger Nazis tried to breakthrough police cordon and shouted "we want to see our Fuhrer! Hitler! Hitler! While the crowd cheered Hitler and the German army, Germany's political police, the Gestapo rounded up Austrian opponent of the Nazis. Many were arrested included Schuschnigg, they were sent to prison camp in Germany. Also 1830000 Jews were deprived of their civil right.

Hitler predicted that the major power of Europe will did nothing to stop him from uniting with Austria, Mussolini made no complain at all. France and Brittan delivered protests to the German government but they didn't send any arm force to stop this action as they speak. Hitler had simply colonized Austria simply by using arm force.




optanti_anschluss2.jpg
Hitler and his troop march imto Viena unchallenged

gestapo_big.jpg
Gestapo, Nazis fearsome secret police

Austrian%20Nazis%20and%20local%20residents%20look%20on%20as%20Jews%20are%20forced%20to%20get%20on%20their%20hands%20and%20knees%20and%20scrub%20the.jpg

Jews were forced to scrub the street of Vienna in March 1938

Video

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t75ldUNc2Xw

Hitler benefit

After sighing Austria, Hitler sure has a right to take any resource on Austria soiled such as gold and iron. Also every industry was now belonging to the German. Also more than 90% of Austria citizen were willing to fight for German and Hitler. German now got more men from Austria as well as its ammunition and supply suchas food, gun tank etc. the Nazis also gain more support from Austria and it is less likely for Hitler to be overthrow since every citizen under German rule like him.




Hitler Lost

When he took control of Austria he is alerting the other country. For example Czechoslovakia is on it full alert and they are preparing their army because they know that they would be next. Also the world power was more certain about Hitler action. Britain even though it looks as it is supporting German. Hitler action was too aggressive and Britain is now uncomfortable. When Hitler makes another aggressive move, the world power might re act using armed force to stop Germany.

World power reaction

Earlier when German was trying to siege Austria, its Chancellor asks France and Britain for help. However those two major powers said that they will not give Austria any help because they were not ready. In another fact Britain think that it is ok for German to Anschluss with Austria. Britain also thinks that the treaty of vassiles is unfair and it is too strict. If Austria agreed to Anchulus with Germany then it is ok. France could not help Austria because she was suffering from the effect of world war one and it is not ready to go to war with German. So no help was send to Austria.

After German occupy Austria nothing really serious happen. The world power such as France and Britain make complain on German action and ask German to move her soldier out of Austria. Although Hitler denies that order, none of an action was made. Britain was unwilling to invade German because Britain also accepts the idea of Anchuluss. France didn’t do anything wither because it doesn’t have enough force to deal with German and their economy were not ready to support war situation. As a result Austria was easily taken by Germany without any fighting.

Analysis Question

What would happen if the world power such as France and Britiain act violently against Hitler action

There are only two solutions, Hitler would withdraw or he would occupy Austria quickly and mobilize his force in order to fight both Britain and France. However in my opinion if I am Hitler then I would choose the second solution. it is no use to fight both Britain and France right now because Germany army were not ready yet for war. German Army now was no match to France and Britain army combine together. If the world power acted against Germany then German will need to withdraw to German.

In another way, war is certain. German army is quite strong and Hitler might be confident enough to start against Britain and France. However it is very cleaver because German will be hit from two sides. one side from Britain and France and another side from USSR because France have made a treaty with USSR that if Hitler attack either of them then the other side will send help and hit Hitler from the back. In my opinion, Hitler would be insane to call a war on USSR, Britain and USSR. Germany would end up like World war one. What Hitler should do is to make an allied with either side, which should be USSR because France and Britain wouldn't like to be German allied since they saw Hitler action. Hitler should allied up with USSR first, by doing that Hitler should promise Stalin something in return for example land ammunition and etc.