Key Terms:

Zhou Enlai
The Prime Minister of China in 1973.
Mao Zedong
Chinese Communist leader and a founder of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921. He led the Long March and proclaimed the People's Republic of China in 1949.
Gang of Four
The most powerful membersw of radical politics during 1973.
Hua Guofeng
The next Prime Minister after Zhou Enlai, he was also the head of the communist party after Mao Zedong's death.
This stand for People Liberation Army. It is a Chinese military organization. They supported the Communist party of China.

Cultural Revolution Period
external image Destroy_the_old_world_Cultural_Revolution_poster.png

Chinese promotion poster saying
"Destroy the old world; Forge the new world."
Classical example of the Red art from the early Cultural Revolution. A worker crushes the crucifix, Buddha, and classical Chinese texts with his hammer in1967.

Time Line


The end of the cultural revolution period.


Liu Shaoqi, the head of government of China died in 1969. Lin Biao at that time was the defence minister and the head of PLA.He was one of Mao's supporters. He wanted to get rid of Mao and become the chairman. Lin tried to convince to people that Mao is power-mad and unwilling to share andy of his authority. In return Mao got rid of Party leaders who supported Lin. The project 571 was established by Lin Biao during 1971. The plan was to overthrown Mao Zedong, but the plan was discovered by Mao. After that Lin and his fellow tried to immagrant out of China. However their aircraft was crashed in Mongolia and killed all of them.

external image linbiao1.png
Lin Bao


After Lin Biao's death, the election in 1973 occurred. This election devided the government into two groups, the Left and the Right. They have different thoughts and disagree to each other in almost everything. The Left was led by Jiang Qing, Yao Wenyuan, Zhang Chunqiao and Wang Hongwen. They had more influences than the right beacuse they control the radio and press. Their idea was that politic was more important than economic. The Right wanted to build a strong economy for China. They wanted to focus on developing China's economic rather than politics. The gang of four dominate the government.
external image Gang_of_Four_at_trial.jpg

The Right established the four moderniation which is to modernize China's farming, defence, science and industry. During that year the Left put all of their effort in to campaigns against bourgeois and outdated idea. They also worked on education and in the artistic life of China.

Zhou Enlai died because of cancer. The citizen across the country came to mourning him, The gang of four afraid that this situation of a large scale of Zhou Enlai's supporters is going to turn the political against them. Since the gang of four control the radio and press, they annouced through media to forbidded white flower, wearing black sashes, and any mourning activities. Mao found out that he has a stroke and he needs to choose the next leader of the communist party. He didn't choose anyone from the gang of four, instead he chose Hua Guofeng as an acting premier. After Mao's dealth, Hua Guofeng was made the head of Communist party. He annouced to arrest the Gang of Four during October,1976. This is the end of all the power struggle during 1969-1976.

Bloom's Question:
Who were in the gang of four? (Knowledge)
What is the main idea of project 571?( Comprehension)
How is the death of Mao Zedong related to Hua Guofeng's power?(Application)
How was the left's side thoughts different from the right's?(Analysis)
What idea do you think is more effective? The left's idea or the right's idea?(Evaluation)
What would happen if Mao Zedong make one of the gang of four an acting premier? (Synthesis)

Two Essay Questions:
Compare and Contrast the success of Mao Zedong and Vladimir Lenin in Politic.

Mao and Lenin are one of the most greatest political leader the world have ever had. Mao Zedong and Vladimir Lenin are both successful in turning the country into communism. The revolution in Russia and China is six years apart, but China was not yet a communist country after the revolution. The inspiration of Russian Revolution during 1905, established the Chinese Communist Party. Mao was one of the earliest members, he along with other members adapted the idea of Lenin's communism theory to use in China. Mao and Lenin both use the same tactic on winning peasants. Peasant are the most population in both Russia and China, Lenin overthrown Monarchy after winning the Russian revolution during 1905 and turn the country to communism. Mao overthrown the Chiang Kai Shek's government during 1949, which is a long time that China turn into communism after Russian.
Compare and Contrast Mao Zedong and Joseph Stalin success in modernizing the country’s economic?
Stalin and Mao Zedong success in modernizing the country was similar. Stalin start out with a five year plan which improves Russia’s economic. Also Mao Zedong made a five year plan which is also successful. Both of the leaders were mostly successful in their first five year plan. The different about the both of them is second five year plan. The second five year plan was considered successful for Russia, but for China it is considered a complete failure.
Stalin success in modernize Russia because he have made a great improve in the economic. After Lenin’s death Stalin became the leader of Russia. He over thrown Lenin’s NEP and replaced it with his five year plans. The first five year plan was a great success for the soviet. It industrializes Russia and made a great improvement in the economic. It was similar to China about the successful of the five year plan. Mao Zedong got this plan when he went to met Stalin in Moscow December 1949. This five year plan of China focus on mostly heavy industrials such as steel and coal. They were successful because of the goods that they produce increase more than their aims.
Now here are the different between the two leaders in the second five year plan. For Russia the improvement continues. The result of the second five year plan was a 14% increases in producing products. However for China it was a complete disaster. Mao wants to both improve the heavy industrial and the light industrial. This second five year plan is mostly fail because of the Great Leap forward. The Great Leap forward wants the people to work in communes. A commune is a group of village formed by about 5,000 families. At first it was successful but one month later it was a disaster. Mao wants to increase the product so he ordered the people to work more. The result of it was the machines were overworked so they fell apart. Also his idea of Backyard steel campaign was also a complete disaster. Over three millions of the eleven tones of steel made backyard finance were too impure for industrial uses and had to be thrown away as scrap. Also they didn’t have enough vehicles to transport the product that is needed to the area that wants it. The result of the Great Leap Forward was the three bitter years killing more than 20millions people by starving and accident that happened in the factories.

Ten key terms


a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
Mao Zedong
1893–1976, Chinese Communist leader: chairman of the People's Republic of China 1949–59; chairman of the Chinese Communist party 1943–76.
Cultural revolution
a radical sociopolitical movement in China c1966–71, led by Mao Zedong and characterized by military rule, terrorism, purges, restructuring of the educational system, etc. Compare Gang of Four, Red Guard
The long march
The Long March was a massive military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Chinese Communist Party, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army.
The Manchu
a member of a Tungusic people of Manchuria who conquered China in the 17th century and established a dynasty there ( Manchu dynasty or Ch'ing 1644–1912).
1917 revolution
The revolution lead by the Bolsheviks to overthrown Tsar Nicholas II and led to Communism.
Joseph Stalin
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was a Soviet politician and head of state who served as the first General Secretary of the Communis, Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. Stalin assumed the leading role of the state after Vladimir Lenin's death in 1924, and gradually marginalized his competitors until he had become the unchallenged leader.
Tsar Nicholas II
Nicholas II (18 May 1868 – 17 July 1918) was the last Emperor of Russia, Grand Prince of Finland, and titular King of Poland. His official title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias and he is currently regarded as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church.
Valdimir Lenin
He is the leader of the Bolsheviks and lead the revolution during 1917. He is the first head of USSR.
The Bolsheviks is the governement party against Monachy, The leader of the Bolsheviks was Lenin, They believe in Communism, They control Russia during 1917.
Pre-Communist China and China under Communist rule
Unit Two: The Rise of Communism