China and The World, 1949 to The Present


Key Terms

system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
a very wealthy person.
a member of a band of irregular soldiers that uses guerrilla warfare, harassing the enemy by surprise raids, sabotaging communication and supply lines.
open, organized, and armed resistance to one's government or ruler.
to draw back, away, or aside
to make modern in appearance or style
to engage in argument or debate.
Ussuri River in 1969
China and USSR had arm clashes on the Ussuri River in 1969, led to the future major war.
Nikita Khrushchev
A new Soviet leader in 1956.
United Natons force
a natoin force contained units from Britain and other United Nations countries.

The Communists came to power in China shortly after the start of 'Cold War' between USA and the USSR. Fear and suspicion had led to a complete breakdown between these two countries. The USSR was a Communist country, so it was natural that China would like to be its ally. However, the United States was scared that the communism might spread into other countries, especially in South-East Asia.

There were two events in 1950 that confirmed the American's suspicions.
1.) Chinese forces invaded Tibet in October, overthrowing its ruler and making the country into part of the People's Rupublic of China.
2.) China sent 300,000 troops to help North Korea when there was a war in Korea between the Communist nortyh and the American-backed anti-Communist south.
Later in 1950-1953, Chinese and North Koreans fought against South Koreans and an American army.

As the result of this bloody war, the People's Republic of China was forbidden to join the United Nations Organisation. Instead, Chiang Kaishek's government on the island of Taiwan was recognised as the true government of China, and was given a place in the UNO. The Americans decided to support Chiang Kaishek and the American navy protected Taiwan from Communist attack from 1954 onwards.

China and the USSR friendship medals

The Sino-Soviet split

As there was a complete breakdown between the USSR and the USA, it made the relationship between China and the USSR much stronger.
However, their relationship began to cool in 1956 when a new Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev, develped more friendly relations with the USA and other capitalist countries in the West. China was afraid that there would be a state of 'peaceful co-existence between the Communist and capitalist countries. This disagreement was getting even worse when there was a clash between Chinese troops and Soviet along the Amur River (the border of two countries). The Soviets stopped all economic aid to China by 1960 as the result of the split of the Sino-Soviet. The tension between these two countries went even further when China tested its own atomic bomb, and there were arm clashes in 1974 and 1978.


China and the USA

China's relationship with the USA remained very bad throughout the 1960s. Since 1960, the United States sent troops and supplies to help the anti-Communist South Vietnamese fight Communist North Vietnam and Communist Vietcong guerillas. The Americans began to withdraw their army from Vietnam in the late 1960s. In 1971, the United Nations accepted the People's Republic as a member and expelled Taiwan from its Security Council.

This picture shows the relationship between China and USA since 1960s until now.
This picture shows the relationship between China and USA since 1960s until now.

Later in 1972, President Nixon visited to Beijing when trade and cultural links were established. In 1979 the USA gave full diplomatic recognition to the People's Republic. The new agreement grew even stronger when Deng Xiaoping visited to Washington.

China's southern neighbours

After China invaded and occupied Tibet in 1950, the Tibetans rebelled against Chinese rule in 1959. After a heavy fighting, Chinese finally crushed the rebellion and expelled Dalai Lama, the ruler, to India. Few years later, about 9,000 Tibetans followed Dalai Lama, leaving their country to be run as a Chinese province until 1965 when it became independent region. The Tibetan issue led to a conflict between China and India:
1.) India was friendly toward China for much of the 1950s, however the events in Tibet caused Indians fear China's intentions.
2) Later in 1962, there was a fight along their eastern and western borders for the dispute over the ownership of the North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA) and Aksai Chin.

Indian soldiers fighting against China in 1962.
Indian soldiers fighting against China in 1962.

Nevertheless, the defeated Indians still remained in Aksai Chin ever since.

In 1979, the war broke out between China and Vietnam which was united under Communist rule. The Vietnamese government had signed a treaty with the USSR, China's enemy, causing China to worry about the growing power of Vietnam. At the start of 1979, China invaded Vietnam and its aim was to stop Vietnam from gaining power to the south of China. China had inflicted an incredibly amount of damage on Vietnam, so they withdrew in March 1979.

China and the world in the 1980s


China's developments throughout the 1980s:
1.) China increased her contacts with the rest of the world.
2.) The amounts of military and industril equipment were increased as a part of the Four Modernisations programme.
3.) Foreign tourists found it easier to visit China.
4.) Young Chinese got higher educations.

By the mid-1980s, the tension and dispute between China and other countries had been removed. The British government agreed that Hong Kong was Chinese territory and that it would become part of the People's Republic when the lease ran out in 1997.

The bitter and long-running dispute with the USSR was becoming less tense when the new russian leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, had a speech suggesting that the USSR was now prepared to consider the normalisation of relations between them.

China's growth in economic/Video

China's economy is now the world's second largest and it was predicted that it's going to be the largest of the world by 2035!!!

Key Terms for China and Russia

Mao Zedong
a Chinese Marxist theorist, soldier, and statesman who led China's communist revolution following decades of civil war.
Cooperative farms
types of agricultural production in which the holdings of several farmers are run as a joint enterprise.
a plan of action adopted or pursued by an individual, government, party, business.
a system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
Independent Region
region in which all people could live together under the laws peacefully.

a policy pursued under Stalin between 1928 and 1940. The goal of this policy was to consolidate individual land and labour into collective farms.
Joseph Stalin
a Soviet politician and head of state who served as thefirst General Secretary of the Communist Party of the soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. He became the leader of the
Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenin's death in 1924.
Heavy industry
Industry which produces products which are either heavy in weight or in the processes leading to their production, such as steel.
The state in which people feel unsatisfied with something and resist to follow.
To be sent away from home or country.

Bloom Questions



1.)Knowledge: How was the conflict between the USSR and China different from the conflict between German and Britain?

2.)Comprehension: What was the main idea of Mikhail Gorbachev's speech in 1986?

3.)Application: How was Nikita Khrushchev's act an example of an inefficient leader?

4.)Analysis: How was China different to other countries in the way of developments?

5.)Evaluation: What do you think about the dispute between China and USSR in 1974-1978?

6.) Synthesis: What solution would you suggest for the conflict between China and America in 1950?

Challenge Question: To what extent was the dispute between China and the USSR caused damages?

The dispute between China and the USSR was the large extent for the causes of damages in several areas around these two countries. China used to be an ally of the USSR. However, their relationship was getting worse when a new Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev develped more friendly relations with the USA and other capitalist countries in the West, worried China that there might be a state of 'peaceful co-existence' between Communist and capitalist countries. The dispute even went further when China tested its atomic bomb in 1964. Later, there was armed clashes between Chinese and Russian soldiers. Harsh damages were caused from this dispute. Nevetheless, damages also came from the fighting between communist and capitalist countries.

Compare and Contrast the economic success and failures of Mao and Stalin

There were both economic success and failures when Mao Zedong and Stalin were rulers. Mao Zedong was a Chinese revolutionary, political theorist and communist leader. Stalin was the general secretary of the communist party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. After Lenin’s death, he became the leader of the Soviet Union. Mao and Stalin had done incredibly amounts of works which improved Russia. However, they weren’t perfectly efficient leaders. Failures in economic also occurred from their ruling behaviors. There were many similarity and differences in economic success and failures between Mao and Stalin. Mao Zedong told the people of China that the new government would provide China with peace, unity, prosperity, and freedom. There were many revolutions in the Chinese society, government, law, and economy. China was transformed by a massive revolution in the years after 1949. It involved many acts of violence. Stalin made his leadership secure of USSR in 1929. Three main reasons to compare and contrast the economic success and failures of Mao and Stalin are First Five-Year Plan, Second Five-Year Plan, and collectivization. All of these reasons made them a great success.

The First Five-Year plan was a great success to China and Soviet Union. They both achieved their goal in the first five year plan. Their economics improved much larger than before and they had more relations with other countries. Industries were well developed and became more effective. Their products were very useful to citizens and soldiers. However, there were differences between the first five year plan of China and Soviet Union. China's First Five-Year Plan was based on state ownership in the modern sector, large collective units in agriculture, and centralized economic planning. Merely, the Soviet's main objectives was a high rate of economic growth, with primary emphasis on industrial development at the expense of agriculture and particular concentration on heavy industry and capital-intensive technology. Soviet engineers, technicians, and scientists attended in the process of developing and installing new heavy industrial facilities, including many entire plants and pieces of equipment purchased from the Soviet Union. These were success of China and the Soviet Union during the First Five-Year Plan. However, agricultural output increased rapidly, averaging increases of about 4 percent a year because of the developing processes of the First Five-Year Plan. This growth result came from the reorganization and cooperation achieved through collectivization. When larger industries were applied, more workers were needed. China and Russia both concentrated on heavy industries, trading their citizens' happiness with development and products.

Mao Zedong decided that he would make China into one of the world's leading industrial nations at the same time as improving her agriculture. This was a part of the Second-Five Year Plan. It wasn't the same as the First Five-Year Plan when Mao Zedong looked forword to develop agriculture as well as industry, including both light and heavy, all at the same time. To achieve this aim, the Chinese people were reorganised into communes which were groups of villages that varied in size from a few square kilometres to that of a British county. Russia's Second Five-Year Plan was similar to China in the way of giving the highest priority to develop heavy industries. Women were encouraged to participate in the plan as childcare was offered to mothers so they could go to work and not need to worry about their children.

The collectivization of Russia, or cooperative farms in China, were very similar in the way of developing agriculture. Both countries took products from farmers and workers as much as possible. Jobs in the lower-stage cooperatives were encouraged by the government and there were about 30-50 families in this cooperative while the higher-stage cooperative consisted of 200-300 families or more. However, there were differences in the way of how people felt about the collectivization ( cooperative farms in China's case). Russian workers and farmers resisted the process of collectivization in which all products were taken by the government and they did not have any rights to own a private land. Those people who resisted the process were either killed or exiled to Siberia where several of them died from overworking. In China's cooperative farms, Chinese workers and farmers were delighted to give Mao Zedong all products they got because they saw Mao as a hero. Also, they had some private lands of their own which they could use to feed animals or grow vegetables. While there were blood shed and resistances in Russia's collectivization process, cooperative farms in China was very well developed without any fight or disagreement.

Three main economic reasons for sucess and failures of Mao Zedong and Stalin are First Five-Year Plan, Second Five-Year Plan, and collectivization. Mao and Stalin achieved their goals to develop the industries and argiculture of their countries. However, they needed to trade it with people's happiness and freedom which was their failures as leaders who couldn't satisfy their citizens. China and Russia became well known to the world as industrial countries from the significance of these two leaders. Nevertheless, farmers and workers might not have much rights to manage their lives and that wasn't the leaders' faults at all. Mao and Stalin put their efforts on improving their beloved countries and they had done really magnificent jobs as leaders.



Pre-Communist China and China under Communist rule

Unit Two- The Rise of Communism